Litecoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency created by Charlie Lee. It was created based on the Bitcoin protocol but differs in terms of the hashing algorithm used. Litecoin uses the memory intensive Scrypt proof of work mining algorithm. Scrypt allows consumer-grade hardware such as GPU to mine those coins.
The transaction confirmation time taken for Litecoin is about 2.5 minutes on average (as compared to Bitcoin's 10 min). The Litecoin network is scheduled to cap at 84 million currency units.
Litecoin has inspired many other popular alternative currencies (eg. Dogecoin) because of its Scrypt hashing algorithm in order to prevent ASIC miners from mining those coins. However it is said that by the end of this year, Scrypt ASIC will enter the mass market.
Litecoin was launched in 2011. Over the last 11 years trading in the market, it has been underperforming against bitcoin in terms of price despite it being the silver to bitcoin's gold. This is most likely due to the proliferation of newer alternative cryptocurrencies with new utility such as smart contract, DeFi, GameFi, governance and more. Litecoin tends to hold value quite well and experience lower volatility as a mature cryptocurrency, especially when compared to meme coins.